Anterior Lateral Line Nerve

Anterior Lateral Line Nerve

“The mechanosensory lateral line detects water movement via clusters of hair cells positioned over the surface of the head and body in specialized structures called neuromasts (Coombs et al., 1989). The hair cells of the lateral line are virtually identical to those found in the inner ear, and they sense movement by deflection of stereocilia. Two lateral line nerves are found anterior to the otic vesicle: the anterodorsal nerve innervates neuromasts of the supraorbital, infraorbital, and otic lines, whereas the anteroventral nerve innervates the mandibular and opercular lines. “(Raible & Kruse, 2000)

Key publications

DAVID W. RAIBLE AND GREGORY J. KRUSE
Organization of the Lateral Line System in Embryonic Zebrafish
THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY 421:189–198 (2000)

Valdivia, L.E., Young, R.M., Hawkins, T.A., Stickney, H.L., Cavodeassi, F., Schwarz, Q., Pullin, L.M., Villegas, R., Moro, E., Argenton, F., Allende, M.L., and Wilson, S.W. (2011)
Lef1-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signalling drives the proliferative engine that maintains tissue homeostasis during lateral line development.
Development. 138(18):3931-3941.

McGraw, H.F., Drerup, C.M., Culbertson, M.D., Linbo, T., Raible, D.W., and Nechiporuk, A.V. (2011)
Lef1 is required for progenitor cell identity in the zebrafish lateral line primordium.
Development. 138(18):3921-3930.


Ghysen, A., and Dambly-Chaudière, C. (2007)
The lateral line microcosmos.
Genes and Development. 21(17):2118-2130.

Gompel, N., Cubedo, N., Thisse, C., Thisse, B., Dambly-Chaudière, C., and Ghysen, A. 2001.
Pattern formation in the lateral line of zebrafish.
Mech. Dev. 105: 69–77.

Gilmour, D., Knaut, H., Maischein, H.M., and Nusslein-Vol- hard, C. 2004.
Towing of sensory axons by their migrating target cells in vivo.
Nat. Neurosci. 7: 491–492.

Haas, P. and Gilmour, D. 2006.
Chemokine signaling mediates self-organizing tissue migration in the zebrafish lateral line.
Dev. Cell 10: 673–680.

Metcalfe, W.K., Kimmel, C.B., and Schabtach, E. 1985.
Anatomy of the posterior lateral line system in young larvae of the zebrafish.
J. Comp. Neurol. 233: 377–389.


Jacqueline F. Webb and Jonathan E. Shirey
Postembryonic Development of the Cranial Lateral Line Canals and Neuromasts in Zebrafish
DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS 228:370–385, 2003

Melanie Haehnel-Taguchi, António M. Fernandes, Margit Böhler, Ina Schmitt, LenaTittel1 and WolfgangDriever
Projections of the Diencephalospinal Dopaminergic System to Peripheral Sense Organs in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Front. Neuroanat., 19 March 2018 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2018.00020

Cranial Nerve 0: Terminal Nerve

Cranial Nerve 0: Terminal Nerve

The terminal nerve ganglion in fish is formed by a small number of cells that lie adjacent to the olfactory bulb. processes of terminal nerve neurons project anteriorly to innervate the olfactory epithelium and posteriorly where they project through the medial olfactory tract to commissural regions of the subpallium(Vs)(Demski & Northcutt., 1983). Some process extend to innervate inner nuclear layer neurons in the contralateral retina. Terminal nerve neurons express gonadotropin releasing hormone, and there is some debate wether terminal nerve or the olfactory epithelium detects pheromones. The cells of the terminal nerve might act as carbon dioxide detectors (Koide et al., 2018).

Key Publications

Whitlock, K.E. (2004)
Development of the nervus terminalis: Origin and migration.
Microscopy research and technique. 65(1-2):2-12.

Koide T, Yabuki Y, Yoshihara Y.
Terminal Nerve GnRH3 Neurons Mediate Slow Avoidance of Carbon Dioxide in Larval Zebrafish.
Cell Rep. 2018 Jan 30;22(5):1115-1123. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.01.019.

Naoyuki Yamamoto and Hironobu Ito
Afferent Sources to the Ganglion of the Terminal Nerve in Teleosts
J. COMP NEUROLOGY 428:355–375 (2000)

Demski LS, Northcutt RG.
The terminal nerve: a new chemosensory system in vertebrates? 
Science (1983) 220:435–7. doi:10.1126/science.6836287

Hans Maaswinkel and Lei Li
Olfactory input increases visual sensitivity in zebrafish: a possible function for the terminal nerve and dopaminergic interplexiform cells
The Journal of Experimental Biology 206, 2201-2209

Grens K.E. Greenwood A.K. Fernald R.D.
Two Visual Processing Pathways Are Targeted by Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone in the Retina
Brain Behav Evol 2005;66:1–9

Cranial Nerve I: Olfactory Nerve

Cranial Nerve I: Olfactory Nerve

The olfactory nerve in zebrafish is composed of olfactory sensory neuron (OSNs) axons. There are three types of olfactory sensory neuron in fish, cilliated cells,microvillus sensory neruons and crypt cells (Kermen et al., 2013). Chemical odorants in the water are detected by olfactory receptors on the OSNs who have their soma located inside the olfactory epithelium(the zebrafish nose). OSN axons innervate the olfactory bulb where they connect with the dendrites of mitral cells and other olfactory bulb neurons at structures called glomeruli.

Frontal view of a Tg(-10lhx2a:GAP-EYFP) embryo. This transgenic line labels the olfactory epithelium(the nose) and the olfactory nerve. Olfactory sensory nerve (OSNs) axons innervate the olfactory bulb where they connect with mitral cells at structures called glomeruli. This transgenic line also labels some mitral cells in the olfactory bulb that send projections to Dp (the olfactory area of the pallium and also to the right habenula.

Frontal view of a Tg(-10lhx2a:GAP-EYFP) embryo. This transgenic line labels the olfactory epithelium(the nose) and the olfactory nerve. Olfactory sensory nerve (OSNs) axons innervate the olfactory bulb where they connect with mitral cells at structures called glomeruli. This transgenic line also labels some mitral cells in the olfactory bulb that send projections to Dp (the olfactory area of the pallium and also to the right habenula.

Key Publications

Miyasaka, N., Morimoto, K., Tsubokawa, T., Higashijima, S., Okamoto, H., and Yoshihara, Y. (2009)
From the olfactory bulb to higher brain centers: genetic visualization of secondary olfactory pathways in zebrafish.
The Journal of neuroscience. 29(15):4756-4767.

Miyasaka, N., Arganda-Carreras, I., Wakisaka, N., Masuda, M., Sümbül, U., Seung, H.S., Yoshihara, Y. (2014) Olfactory projectome in the zebrafish forebrain revealed by genetic single-neuron labelling.
Nature communications. 5:3639.

Dreosti, E., Vendrell Llopis, N., Carl, M., Yaksi, E., and Wilson, S.W. (2014) Left-right asymmetry is required for the habenulae to respond to both visual and olfactory stimuli.
Current biology : CB. 24(4):440-445.

Byrd CA, Brunjes PC.
Organization of the olfactory system in the adult zebrafish: histological, immunohistochemical, and quantitative analysis.
J Comp Neurol. 1995 Jul 24;358(2):247-59.

Florence Kermen, Luis M. Franco, Cameron Wyatt, and Emre Yaksi
Neural circuits mediating olfactory-driven behavior in fish
Front Neural Circuits. 2013; 7: 62. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2013.00062

Cranial Nerve II: Optic Nerve

Cranial Nerve II: Optic Nerve

The optic nerve is composed of the axons of retinal ganglion cells of the eye. The optic nerve crosses the midline at the optic chiasm on its way to the optic tectum, the visual processing centre of the zebrafish brain. After the optic nerve decussates it is called the optic tract.

Cranial Nerve III: Oculomotor Nerve

Cranial Nerve III: Oculomotor Nerve

Oculomotor nerve innervates four extraocular muscles, consisting of the inferior oblique (IO), inferior rectus (IR), medial rectus (MR), and superior rectus (SR) (Clarke et al., 2013).

Oculomotor nerve neurons and the occulomotor nerve root are labelled with choline acetyltransferase the acetylcholine synthesising enzyme indicating that this nucleus forms part of the cholinergic system in zebrafish (Mueller et al., 2004).

motor cranial nerve schematic oculomotor III.png
isl1 cranial nerves expanded-02.png
isl1 cranial nerves expanded-01.png

Key Publications

Shin-ichi Higashijima, Yoshiki Hotta, and Hitoshi Okamoto
Visualization of Cranial Motor Neurons in Live Transgenic Zebrafish Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein Under the Control of the Islet-1 Promoter/Enhancer.
The Journal of Neuroscience, January 1, 2000, 20(1):206–218

Clark, C., Austen, O., Poparic, I., and Guthrie, S. (2013)
alpha2-Chimaerin Regulates a Key Axon Guidance Transition during Development of the Oculomotor Projection.
The Journal of neuroscience. 33(42):16540-16551.

David Schoppik, Isaac H. Bianco, David A. Prober, Adam D. Douglass, Drew N. Robson, Jennifer M.B. Li, Joel S.F. Greenwood. Edward Soucy, Florian Engert, and Alexander F. Schier,
Gaze-Stabilizing Central Vestibular Neurons Project Asymmetrically to Extraocular Motoneuron Pools.
The Journal of Neuroscience, November 22, 2017 • 37(47):11353–11365 • 11353

Thomas Mueller, Philippe Vernier, Mario F. Wullimann
The adult central nervous cholinergic system of a neurogenetic model animal, the zebrafish Danio rerio
Brain Research 1011 (2004) 156–169

Cranial Nerve IV: Trochlear Nerve

Cranial Nerve IV: Trochlear Nerve

The trochlear nerve innervates the superior oblique muscle that controls eye movement (Clarke et al., 2013).

trochlear nerve somata and the fibres in the trochlear nerve root are labelled with choline acetyltransferase the acetylcholine synthesising enzyme indicating that this nucleus forms part of the cholinergic system in zebrafish. The trochlear nerve root crosses the midline before it exits the medulla oblongata where the optic tectum meets the cerebellum (Mueller et al., 2004).

motor cranial nerve schematic troclear IV.png
isl1 cranial nerves expanded-02.png
isl1 cranial nerves expanded-01.png

Key Publications

Shin-ichi Higashijima, Yoshiki Hotta, and Hitoshi Okamoto
Visualization of Cranial Motor Neurons in Live Transgenic Zebrafish Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein Under the Control of the Islet-1 Promoter/Enhancer.
The Journal of Neuroscience, January 1, 2000, 20(1):206–218

Clark, C., Austen, O., Poparic, I., and Guthrie, S. (2013)
alpha2-Chimaerin Regulates a Key Axon Guidance Transition during Development of the Oculomotor Projection.
The Journal of neuroscience. 33(42):16540-16551.

David Schoppik, Isaac H. Bianco, David A. Prober, Adam D. Douglass, Drew N. Robson, Jennifer M.B. Li, Joel S.F. Greenwood. Edward Soucy, Florian Engert, and Alexander F. Schier,
Gaze-Stabilizing Central Vestibular Neurons Project Asymmetrically to Extraocular Motoneuron Pools.
The Journal of Neuroscience, November 22, 2017 • 37(47):11353–11365 • 11353

Thomas Mueller, Philippe Vernier, Mario F. Wullimann
The adult central nervous cholinergic system of a neurogenetic model animal, the zebrafish Danio rerio
Brain Research 1011 (2004) 156–169

Cranial Nerve V: Trigeminal Nerve

Cranial Nerve V: Trigeminal Nerve

In the somatosensory system, chemical, mechanical and thermal stimuli to the head are sensed by different trigeminal sensory neuron subtypes that have varied morphologies and distinct axonal connections to second-order neurons.(Pan et al., 2012).

Motor efferents of the trigeminal nerve innervate the follwing muscles of the mandibular arch: Intermandibularis anterior, Intermandibularis posterior, abductor mandibulae, levator arcus palatini, dilator operculi (Higashima et al., 2000).

Both the dorsal and ventral divisions of the trigeminal motor nucleus are positive for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) the acetylcholine synthesising enzyme indicating that this nucleus forms part of the cholinergic system in zebrafish (Mueller et al., 2004).

motor cranial nerve schematic trigeminal V.png
isl1 cranial nerves expanded-02.png
isl1 cranial nerves expanded-01.png

Key Publications

Shin-ichi Higashijima, Yoshiki Hotta, and Hitoshi Okamoto
Visualization of Cranial Motor Neurons in Live Transgenic Zebrafish Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein Under the Control of the Islet-1 Promoter/Enhancer.
The Journal of Neuroscience, January 1, 2000, 20(1):206–218

Pan YA, Choy M, Prober DA, Schier AF
Robo2 determines subtype-specific axonal projections of trigeminal sensory neurons.
Development. 2012 Feb;139(3):591-600. doi: 10.1242/dev.076588. Epub 2011 Dec 21.

Koide T, Yabuki Y, Yoshihara Y.
Terminal Nerve GnRH3 Neurons Mediate Slow Avoidance of Carbon Dioxide in Larval Zebrafish.
Cell Rep. 2018 Jan 30;22(5):1115-1123. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.01.019.

Jane A. Cox, Angela LaMora, Stephen L. Johnson, Mark M. Voigt
Diverse mechanisms for assembly of branchiomeric nerves.
Developmental Biology 357 (2011) 305–317

Thomas Mueller, Philippe Vernier, Mario F. Wullimann
The adult central nervous cholinergic system of a neurogenetic model animal, the zebrafish Danio rerio
Brain Research 1011 (2004) 156–169

Cranial Nerve VI: Abducens Nerve

Cranial Nerve VI: Abducens Nerve

This cranial nerve controls the lateral movement of the eye. The abducens nerve innervates the lateral rectus extraocular muscle. The abducens motor nerve nucleus is composed of two divisions, the rostral division and the caudal division. Both divisions lie ventrally within the medulla oblongata at mid cerebellar regions. The caudal and rostral nerve roots leave the medulla oblongata and then fuse together and course rostrally once they are outside the brainstem.

Both parts of the abducens motor nerve nucleus are labelled with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) the acetylcholine synthesising enzyme indicating that this nucleus forms part of the cholinergic system in zebrafish (Mueller et al., 2004).

Key Publications

Clark, C., Austen, O., Poparic, I., and Guthrie, S. (2013)
alpha2-Chimaerin Regulates a Key Axon Guidance Transition during Development of the Oculomotor Projection.
The Journal of neuroscience. 33(42):16540-16551.

Thomas Mueller, Philippe Vernier, Mario F. Wullimann
The adult central nervous cholinergic system of a neurogenetic model animal, the zebrafish Danio rerio
Brain Research 1011 (2004) 156–169

Asakawa K, Kawakami K.
Protocadherin-Mediated Cell Repulsion Controls the Central Topography and Efferent Projections of the Abducens Nucleus.
Cell Rep. 2018 Aug 7;24(6):1562-1572. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.07.024.

Cranial Nerve VII: Facial Nerve

Cranial Nerve VII: Facial Nerve

A branchiomeric cranial nerve that contains sensory and motor components. Motor axons from the facial lobe innervate muscles derived from the second branchial arch. The motor neurons are generated in rhombomere 4. VII innervates the following hyoid arch muscles :Interhyal, Hyohyal, Abductor hyomandibulae, Abductor operculi.

facial nerve motor neurons and the facial motor nerve root are labelled with choline acetyltransferase(ChAT) the acetylcholine synthesising enzyme indicating that this nucleus forms part of the cholinergic system in zebrafish . In the facial lobe ChAT+ fibres form a dense net. This innervation couls come from the ventral motor trigeminal nucleus which projects to facial and vagal lobes in the goldfish (Mueller et al., 2004) .

motor cranial nerve schematic facial motor VII.png
motor cranial nerve schematic facial motor VII.png
cranial nerve schematic facial sensory VII.png

Key Publications

Shin-ichi Higashijima, Yoshiki Hotta, and Hitoshi Okamoto
Visualization of Cranial Motor Neurons in Live Transgenic Zebrafish Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein Under the Control of the Islet-1 Promoter/Enhancer.
The Journal of Neuroscience, January 1, 2000, 20(1):206–218

Jeroen Crucke, Annelore Van de Kelft and Ann Huysseune
The innervation of the zebrafish pharyngeal jaws and teeth.
Journal of Anatomy(2015)227, pp62-71. doi: 10.1111/joa.12321

Jane A. Cox, Angela LaMora, Stephen L. Johnson, Mark M. Voigt
Diverse mechanisms for assembly of branchiomeric nerves.
Developmental Biology 357 (2011) 305–317

Thomas Mueller, Philippe Vernier, Mario F. Wullimann
The adult central nervous cholinergic system of a neurogenetic model animal, the zebrafish Danio rerio
Brain Research 1011 (2004) 156–169

Cranial Nerve VIII: Auditory/ Octaval nerve

Cranial Nerve VIII: Auditory/ Octaval nerve

“In aquatic vertebrates, the Octavolateralis efferent (OLe) system provides efferent innervation to hair cells of the lateral line and ear, whereas in terrestrial vertebrates only the ear is innervated. OLe neurons are considered to be a subset of cranial motor neurons that innervate neuroepithelium rather than muscle. The lateral line, which is unique to aquatic vertebrates, is a sensory system mainly responsible for detection of water displacement (Coombs et al., 1989). The lateral line nerve as well as the vestibuloacoustic nerve terminates at hair cells that are innervated by both sensory and efferent (octavolateralis efferent, OLe) nerves (Roberts and Meredith, 1989; 1992; Highstein, 1991). The facial motor (nVII) and OLe neurons are located in close proximity, and the efferent axons from both cell types extend together in the hindbrain. “Higashima et al., 2000).

The statoacoustic ganglion is the sensory ganglion of the ear. Neurons of this ganglion innervate hair cells of the sensory placodes of the inner ear, their central processes form the VIIIth (octaval) nerve. The statoacoustic ganglion is formed by cells that delaminate from the otic placode. These neuroblasts undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transistion to leave the otic vesicle. they congregate beneath the rosatral part of the otic vesicle and differentiate into the neruons pf the VIIIth ganglion (Whitfield et al., 2002). Fibers of the octaval nerve (nVIII) innervate three separate clusters of hair cells within the ear (Raible & Kruse, 2000).

Large and small acetylcholine transferase(ChAT) positive somata belonging to the midline octavolateralis efferent system. Some ChAT positive fibres are also present in the medial octavolateralis nucleus indicating that this nucleus forms part of the cholinergic system in the zebrafish (Mueller et al., 2004).

The medial octavolateralis nucleus, along with the rest of the lateral line system, receives dopaminergic input from the A11 homolog groups in the anterior part of the posterior tuberculum (Haehnel-Taguchi et al., 2018).

motor cranial nerve schematic OLe.png

Key Publications

Shin-ichi Higashijima, Yoshiki Hotta, and Hitoshi Okamoto
Visualization of Cranial Motor Neurons in Live Transgenic Zebrafish Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein Under the Control of the Islet-1 Promoter/Enhancer.
The Journal of Neuroscience, January 1, 2000, 20(1):206–218

Arminda Suli, Nathan Mortimer, Iain Shepherd, and Chi-Bin Chien
Netrin/DCC Signaling Controls Contralateral Dendrites of Octavolateralis Efferent Neurons
The Journal of Neuroscience, December 20, 2006 • 26(51):13328 –13337

Thomas Mueller, Philippe Vernier, Mario F. Wullimann
The adult central nervous cholinergic system of a neurogenetic model animal, the zebrafish Danio rerio
Brain Research 1011 (2004) 156–169

Melanie Haehnel-Taguchi, António M. Fernandes, Margit Böhler, Ina Schmitt, LenaTittel1 and WolfgangDriever
Projections of the Diencephalospinal Dopaminergic System to Peripheral Sense Organs in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Front. Neuroanat., 19 March 2018 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2018.00020

TANYA T. WHITFIELD, BRUCE B. RILEY, MING-YUNG CHIANG, AND BRYAN PHILLIPS
Development of the Zebrafish Inner Ear
DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS 223:427–458 (2002)

DAVID W. RAIBLE AND GREGORY J. KRUSE 
Organization of the Lateral Line System in Embryonic Zebrafish 
THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY 421:189–198 (2000) 

Cranial Nerve IX: Glossopharyngeal Nerve

Cranial Nerve IX: Glossopharyngeal Nerve

One of the brachial cranial nerves. The glossopharyngeal nerve (N.IX) receives sensory information from the and contains both sensory and motor fibres innervating the muscles in the first gill arch (third pharyngeal arch).

Lateral schematic of glossopharyngeal sensory ganglion adapted from Higashijima et al., 2000.

Lateral schematic of glossopharyngeal sensory ganglion adapted from Higashijima et al., 2000.

Lateral view of a 60hpf Tg(isl1:GFP) larvae labelled with anti-GFP. This confocal micrograph has been inverted and the different cranial motor nerves false coloured to creat a schematic diagram. The glossopharyngeal sensory ganglion is coloured in yellow.

Lateral view of a 60hpf Tg(isl1:GFP) larvae labelled with anti-GFP. This confocal micrograph has been inverted and the different cranial motor nerves false coloured to creat a schematic diagram. The glossopharyngeal sensory ganglion is coloured in yellow.

Key Publications

Shin-ichi Higashijima, Yoshiki Hotta, and Hitoshi Okamoto
Visualization of Cranial Motor Neurons in Live Transgenic Zebrafish Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein Under the Control of the Islet-1 Promoter/Enhancer.
The Journal of Neuroscience, January 1, 2000, 20(1):206–218

Jeroen Crucke, Annelore Van de Kelft and Ann Huysseune
The innervation of the zebrafish pharyngeal jaws and teeth.
Journal of Anatomy(2015)227, pp62-71. doi: 10.1111/joa.12321

Jane A. Cox, Angela LaMora, Stephen L. Johnson, Mark M. Voigt
Diverse mechanisms for assembly of branchiomeric nerves.
Developmental Biology 357 (2011) 305–317

Cranial Nerve X: Vagus nerve

Cranial Nerve X: Vagus nerve

One of the brachial nerves this cranial nerve that innervates gill arches pharyngeal jaws and teeth with afferent and efferent fibres.

Lateral schematic of vagal lobe and sensory ganglia adapted from Higashijima et al., 2000.

Lateral schematic of vagal lobe and sensory ganglia adapted from Higashijima et al., 2000.

motor cranial nerve schematic vagus X.png
Dorsal view of a 60hpf Tg(isl1:GFP) larvae labelled with anti-GFP. This confocal micrograph has been inverted and the different cranial motor nerves false coloured to creat a schematic diagram. The vagal nerve and vgal lobe is coloured in mint green.

Dorsal view of a 60hpf Tg(isl1:GFP) larvae labelled with anti-GFP. This confocal micrograph has been inverted and the different cranial motor nerves false coloured to creat a schematic diagram. The vagal nerve and vgal lobe is coloured in mint green.

Lateral view of a 60hpf Tg(isl1:GFP) larvae labelled with anti-GFP. This confocal micrograph has been inverted and the different cranial motor nerves false coloured to creat a schematic diagram. The vagal nerve and vgal lobe is coloured in mint green.

Lateral view of a 60hpf Tg(isl1:GFP) larvae labelled with anti-GFP. This confocal micrograph has been inverted and the different cranial motor nerves false coloured to creat a schematic diagram. The vagal nerve and vgal lobe is coloured in mint green.

Key Publications

Shin-ichi Higashijima, Yoshiki Hotta, and Hitoshi Okamoto
Visualization of Cranial Motor Neurons in Live Transgenic Zebrafish Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein Under the Control of the Islet-1 Promoter/Enhancer.
The Journal of Neuroscience, January 1, 2000, 20(1):206–218

Jeroen Crucke, Annelore Van de Kelft and Ann Huysseune
The innervation of the zebrafish pharyngeal jaws and teeth.
Journal of Anatomy(2015)227, pp62-71. doi: 10.1111/joa.12321

Gabrielle R. Barsh, Adam J. Isabella, Cecilia B. Moens (2017).
Vagus Motor Neuron Topographic Map Determined by Parallel Mechanisms of hox5 Expression and Time of Axon Initiation.
Current Biology 27, 3812–3825

Jane A. Cox, Angela LaMora, Stephen L. Johnson, Mark M. Voigt
Diverse mechanisms for assembly of branchiomeric nerves.
Developmental Biology 357 (2011) 305–317

Posterior Lateral Line Nerve

Posterior Lateral Line Nerve


“The mechanosensory lateral line detects water movement via clusters of hair cells positioned over the surface of the head and body in specialised structures called neuromasts (Coombs et al., 1989). The hair cells of the lateral line are virtually identical to those found in the inner ear, and they sense movement by deflection of stereocilia. Two lateral line nerves are found posterior to the otic vesicle: the middle lateral line nerve innervates the middle line, whereas the posterior nerve innervates the occipital dorsal and posterior trunk lines. “(Raible & Kruse, 2000).

“The posterior lateral line (PLL) of the trunk and tail arises from placodal cells that undergo partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition and acquire migratory properties. A group of about 100 of these cells, the PLL primordium (PLLP), undergoes caudally directed collective cell migration along the myoseptum, regularly depositing groups of ~20 cells that will differentiate as the accessory and hair cells of the mature neuromast (Metcalfe et al., 1985; Ghysen and Dambly- Chaudière, 2004). Prior to deposition, cells in the trailing zone of the primordium become organised into rosette-like epithelial structures that mature into pro-neuromasts, which are reiteratively formed and deposited every 3-4 hours. When the primordium reaches the end of the tail, it fragments into two or three terminal neuromasts. “(Valdivia et al., 2011)

Image by Leo Valdivia . The primordium of the posterior lateral line deposits neuromasts as it grows along the trunk to the tail. This image is of a 55hpf Tg(-8.0cldnb:lynEGFP)zf106 transgenic larvae. Nuclei are counterstained with propidium iodide.

Image by Leo Valdivia. The primordium of the posterior lateral line deposits neuromasts as it grows along the trunk to the tail. This image is of a 55hpf Tg(-8.0cldnb:lynEGFP)zf106 transgenic larvae. Nuclei are counterstained with propidium iodide.

Key publications

DAVID W. RAIBLE AND GREGORY J. KRUSE
Organization of the Lateral Line System in Embryonic Zebrafish
THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY 421:189–198 (2000)

Valdivia, L.E., Young, R.M., Hawkins, T.A., Stickney, H.L., Cavodeassi, F., Schwarz, Q., Pullin, L.M., Villegas, R., Moro, E., Argenton, F., Allende, M.L., and Wilson, S.W. (2011)
Lef1-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signalling drives the proliferative engine that maintains tissue homeostasis during lateral line development.
Development. 138(18):3931-3941.

McGraw, H.F., Drerup, C.M., Culbertson, M.D., Linbo, T., Raible, D.W., and Nechiporuk, A.V. (2011)
Lef1 is required for progenitor cell identity in the zebrafish lateral line primordium.
Development. 138(18):3921-3930.


Ghysen, A., and Dambly-Chaudière, C. (2007)
The lateral line microcosmos.
Genes and Development. 21(17):2118-2130.

Gompel, N., Cubedo, N., Thisse, C., Thisse, B., Dambly-Chaudière, C., and Ghysen, A. 2001.
Pattern formation in the lateral line of zebrafish.
Mech. Dev. 105: 69–77.

Gilmour, D., Knaut, H., Maischein, H.M., and Nusslein-Vol- hard, C. 2004.
Towing of sensory axons by their migrating target cells in vivo.
Nat. Neurosci. 7: 491–492.

Haas, P. and Gilmour, D. 2006.
Chemokine signaling mediates self-organizing tissue migration in the zebrafish lateral line.
Dev. Cell 10: 673–680.

Metcalfe, W.K., Kimmel, C.B., and Schabtach, E. 1985.
Anatomy of the posterior lateral line system in young larvae of the zebrafish.
J. Comp. Neurol. 233: 377–389.


Jacqueline F. Webb and Jonathan E. Shirey
Postembryonic Development of the Cranial Lateral Line Canals and Neuromasts in Zebrafish
DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS 228:370–385, 2003

Melanie Haehnel-Taguchi, António M. Fernandes, Margit Böhler, Ina Schmitt, LenaTittel1 and WolfgangDriever
Projections of the Diencephalospinal Dopaminergic System to Peripheral Sense Organs in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Front. Neuroanat., 19 March 2018 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2018.00020