Viewing entries tagged
forebrain

preglomerular complex

preglomerular complex

Schematic showing the position of the preglomerular complex in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.  Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and  http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de   Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Schematic showing the position of the preglomerular complex in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.
Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Description

“The thalamus proper is also less prominent in zebrafish than in mammals. This is the case because teleosts possess a preglomerular complex, an elaborated migrated agglomeration of nuclei related to the posterior tuberculum absent in mammals. In fact, the preglomerular complex serves as a predominant sensory relay station in the teleostean diencephalon (Wullimann and Northcutt, 1990; Northcutt, 2008; Yamamoto and Ito, 2008).”(Mueller, 2012)


Ontology
 

is part of: diencephalon, posterior tuberculum.

has parts:



Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and  http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

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Key Publications

Thomas Mueller
What is the Thalamus in Zebrafish?
Front Neurosci. 2012; 6: 64.

olfactory epithelium

olfactory epithelium

Schematic showing the position of the olfactory epithelium in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain. Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and   http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de     Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Schematic showing the position of the olfactory epithelium in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain. Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Description

Also known as the nasal placode. The olfactory epithelium contains the cell bodies of olfactory sensory neurons that project axons into the olfactory bulb where they contact mitral cells at olfactory bulb glomeruli. In zebrafish the predominant subtypes are ciliated sensory neurons that have long dendrites and microvillous sensory neurons, which have short dendrites, these cells are placodally derived (Aguillon et al., 2018). A third group of neurons associated with the olfactory epithelium express gonadotropin releasing hormone 3 (Gnrh3), these may be the cell bodies of the terminal nerve cranial nerve 0.


Ontology
 

is part of: olfactory system

has parts:


ZFIN

OLS Tree Diagram


Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and  http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

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Key Publications

Anne Hansen, Zeiske Eckart
The Peripheral Olfactory Organ of the Zebrafish, Danio rerio: an Ultrastructural Study
Chemical Senses, Volume 23, Issue 1, February 1998, Pages 39-48, https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/23.1.39

Kathleen E. Whitlock and Monte Westerfield
A Transient Population of Neurons Pioneers the Olfactory Pathway in the Zebrafish
Journal of Neuroscience 1 November 1998, 18 (21) 8919-8927; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.18-21-08919.1998

Raphaël Aguillon, Julie Batut, Arul Subramanian, Romain Madelaine, Pascale Dufourcq, Thomas F Schilling, Patrick Blader
Cell-type heterogeneity in the early zebrafish olfactory epithelium is generated from progenitors within preplacodal ectoderm
eLife 2018;7:e32041 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.32041

pineal complex/epiphysis

pineal complex/epiphysis

Schematic showing the position of the pineal/epiphysis in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.  Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and   http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de     Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Schematic showing the position of the pineal/epiphysis in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.
Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Description


ontology

is part of:
forebrainepithalamus

has parts:
epiphysis/pineal organ
parapineal


ZFIN

OLS Tree Diagram


Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and  http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

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Key Publications

habenulae

habenulae

Schematic showing the position of the habenulae in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.  Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and   http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de     Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Schematic showing the position of the habenulae in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.
Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Introduction

The habenulae are part of a highly conserved conduction system, the dorsal-diencephalic conduction system (DDC), that interconnects sites in the limbic forebrain with the ventral midbrain and hindbrain (Bianco & Wilson, 2009). 

 The paired habenula nuclei exhibit several left-right asymmetries.  Displaying differences in the proportion of neuronal subtypes with distinct patterns of gene expression, axon terminal morphology and connectivity (Bianco et al, 2008, Roussigne at al, 2009).

 The habenulae have been shown to be important in a range of behaviours.  Their regulation of monaminergic activity in the midbrain is important for the modulation of fear behaviours, avoidance learning and attention (Agetsuma et al, 2010).  As would be expected of a regulator of monoaminergic activity they also have been implicated in psychosis, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and addictive behaviours.  They also play a role in circadian rhythms, sleep initiation and duration and reproductive and maternal behaviours (Bianco & Wilson, 2009, Hikosaka, 2010).

The neuroanatomical asymmetries of the habenula can also lead to a lateralisation of certain behaviours (Barth et al, 2005).


Neuroanatomy

 The habenulae are spheroid nuclei.  Habenular neurons are mono-polar.. The cells direct their dendrites inwards forming an internal neuropil core that the cell bodies surround.

Single-depth confocal section through the habenulae of a 4 dpf Tg(ET16:GFP) transgenic larva in which a subset of habenular neurons express GFP. In each nucleus the neuronal somata are arranged as ovoid shells surrounding a central neuropil domain. It is in this domain that neurons elaborate their dendritic arbors(Image courtesy of Isaac Bianco taken from Bianco et al, 2008).

Single-depth confocal section through the habenulae of a 4 dpf Tg(ET16:GFP) transgenic larva in which a subset of habenular neurons express GFP. In each nucleus the neuronal somata are arranged as ovoid shells surrounding a central neuropil domain. It is in this domain that neurons elaborate their dendritic arbors(Image courtesy of Isaac Bianco taken from Bianco et al, 2008).

A Left habenular neuron visualised by focal electroporation with a construct driving the expression of membrane GFP. Habenular cells have a rounded nucleus and are mono polar, projecting their dendrites inwards to form the dense neuropil of the habenulae (Image courtesy of Isaac Bianco taken from Bianco et al, 2008).

A Left habenular neuron visualised by focal electroporation with a construct driving the expression of membrane GFP. Habenular cells have a rounded nucleus and are mono polar, projecting their dendrites inwards to form the dense neuropil of the habenulae (Image courtesy of Isaac Bianco taken from Bianco et al, 2008).

 In the zebrafish, the left habenula receives projections from the left-sided parapineal organ that promotes the elaboration of left sided habenular identity (Bianco et al, 2008).

At later stages, in both habenulae a dorsal and a ventral habenular subnucleus(vHb) can be distinguished. The ventral subnucleus is homologous to the lateral mammalian habenula and the dorsal habenula is homologous to the medial mammalian habenula.  The dorsal habenula can be further subdivided into lateral and medial subnuclei (dHbL,dHBM). (Amo et al, 2010). 

A dorsal view of the epithalamus showing the left sided parapineal nucleus innervating the left habenular. The left-sided parapineal organ that promotes the elaboration of left sided habenular identity (Image courtesy of Miguel Concha, Concha et al, 2003).

A dorsal view of the epithalamus showing the left sided parapineal nucleus innervating the left habenular. The left-sided parapineal organ that promotes the elaboration of left sided habenular identity (Image courtesy of Miguel Concha, Concha et al, 2003).

Schematic showing a transverse section through the adult habenular nuclei. This schematic shows the arrangment of the dorsal and ventral habenular subnuclei, the dorsal nucleus is further subdivided into medial and lateral subnuclei (See Development section to see the morphogenetic movements that result in this adult arrangement)(Schematic adapted from Amo et al, 2010).

Schematic showing a transverse section through the adult habenular nuclei. This schematic shows the arrangment of the dorsal and ventral habenular subnuclei, the dorsal nucleus is further subdivided into medial and lateral subnuclei (See Development section to see the morphogenetic movements that result in this adult arrangement)(Schematic adapted from Amo et al, 2010).

This Figure shows a dorsal view of a 4dpf Tg(mp558b:GFP) embryo labelled with anti-acetylated tubulin(red) and SV2(blue). The anti-acetylated tubulin antibody labels axonal tracts and the SV2 antibody labels synaptic neuropil. This line expresses GFP only in the left dHbL nuclei. In panels B & C the same confocal stack has been rendered into 3D. By rotating the stack to the right we can see the synaptic neuropil of the three subnuclei and their relative positions at this stage of development. In panel C, the region that would be GFP positive is indicated by the dashed white line.

This Figure shows a dorsal view of a 4dpf Tg(mp558b:GFP) embryo labelled with anti-acetylated tubulin(red) and SV2(blue). The anti-acetylated tubulin antibody labels axonal tracts and the SV2 antibody labels synaptic neuropil. This line expresses GFP only in the left dHbL nuclei. In panels B & C the same confocal stack has been rendered into 3D. By rotating the stack to the right we can see the synaptic neuropil of the three subnuclei and their relative positions at this stage of development. In panel C, the region that would be GFP positive is indicated by the dashed white line.

 The habenulae are part of a system that relays information from the telencephalon and entopeduncular nucleus in the forebrain to the interpeduncular nucleus and to the raphe nucleus located in the midbrain/hindbrain.  The afferent fibres from the telencephalon/ entopeduncular nucleus reach the habenulae via the stria medullaris. The projections of the habenula to the interpeduncular nucleus and raphe nucleus travel in the fasciculus retroflexus.

 In zebrafish there are obvious anatomical asymmetries between the left and right habenulae. This can be seen in the differing size and shape of the neuropil in the left and right habenulae.  The dHbM and dHbL subnuclei also have different size ratios on the left and the right and innervate different regions of the IPN. While the dHbm subnucleus is the main source of projections to the ventral region of the IPN the dHbL subnucleus projects mainly to the dorsal IPN (Agetsuma et al, 2010).

Dorsal view of a 4dpf wt embryo labelled with sytox nucleic acid stain, anti-acetylated tubulin(red) and SV2(blue). The spheroid nuclei of the habenulae can be seen surrounding a dense core of neuropil that is larger in the left habenular than in the right and differently shaped.

Dorsal view of a 4dpf wt embryo labelled with sytox nucleic acid stain, anti-acetylated tubulin(red) and SV2(blue). The spheroid nuclei of the habenulae can be seen surrounding a dense core of neuropil that is larger in the left habenular than in the right and differently shaped.

Left-right asymmetries in the telencephalon-habenula-IPN pathway.

(a) Schematic of a 4 dpf larval zebrafish brain. The habenular (Hb) nuclei receive afferent inputs from nuclei in the telencephalon (Tel) via the stria medullaris and diencephalon (not shown). Habenular neurons send efferent projections via the fasciculus retroflexus (FR) to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) in the ventral mid-brain. The L habenula predominantly innervates the dIPN and makes less substantial projections to the vIPN whereas the vast majority of R-sided axons terminate in the vIPN. In addition to the habenulae, the epithalamus contains the pineal complex, comprising the photoreceptive pineal (P) and parapineal (pp) nuclei. The parapineal is located on the L side of the dorsal midline and projects efferent axons that exclusively innervate the L habenula. (b) Neuroanatomical asymmetries in the epithalamus. Anti-acetylated tubulin immunostaining (red) reveals the L habenula displays a greater density of neuropil, especially in the dorso-medial aspect of the nucleus (arrow). The pineal (blue) and parapineal (green) nuclei are visualized by expression of GFP in a Tg(foxD3:GFP) transgenic larva. Parapineal efferent axons predominantly terminate in the asymmetric neuropil of the L habenula. (c) Three-dimensional reconstruction of habenular axon terminals in the ventral midbrain. L-sided axons were labelled with DiD (red) and R-sided axons with DiI (green). The dIPN is almost exclusively innervated by L-sided axons, whereas the ventral target receives a majority of R-sided inputs. All panels show dorsal views, anterior top. pc, posterior commissure;

Single cell electroporations of habenula neurons showed that habenular efferents have two distinct patterns of axonal arborisation in their terminals in the IPN. Axons coming from the left-sided habenula neurons terminate predominantly in the dorsal IPN. Three-dimensional reconstructions of these L-typical arbors reveal them to be formed like a 'domed crown' with branches extending over considerable DV depth.  Their terminals circle the IPN and extend colaterals directed internally into the IPN.Right-sided habenula neurons predominantly terminate in the ventral IPN. Their axon terminals also surround the IPN but in a more ovoid-like shape “reminiscent of an electromagnetic coil. They look a lot flatter than the L-typical arbors, extending over less depth.  The branches of the right axons concentrate more in the periphery, with relatively few branches in the centre of the IPN. Although these single cell electroporation experiments have not yet been carried out in transgenic lines labeling specific habenula subnuclei the results of Bianco et al, 2008 correlate well with later studies describing the innervation of the IPN by the lateral and medial dorsal habenula nuclei.

Habenular neurons have a stereotypical unipolar morphology and their axons terminate in spiral-shaped arbors that display multiple midline crossing. (Left) Three-dimensional reconstruction showing a R habenular (rHb) projection neuron in an intact 4 dpf larval zebrafish brain. Arrow indicates direction of axonal projection within the FR, from the rHb to the IPN. (Centre and Right) Confocal z-projection within the IPN showing a single axonal arbor elaborated by a L habenular projection neuron(centre) labeled by focal electroporation. The arbor crosses the ventral midline (dotted line) multiple times. Branches can also reverse direction such that they encircle the IPN in opposite senses. These arbors are shaped like a domed crown and arborize over a considerable DV extent. (Right) Shows an example of a R typical arbour, Which are considerably flatter. (Image provided by Isaac Bianco taken from Bianco et al, 2008)

Habenular neurons have a stereotypical unipolar morphology and their axons terminate in spiral-shaped arbors that display multiple midline crossing. (Left) Three-dimensional reconstruction showing a R habenular (rHb) projection neuron in an intact 4 dpf larval zebrafish brain. Arrow indicates direction of axonal projection within the FR, from the rHb to the IPN. (Centre and Right) Confocal z-projection within the IPN showing a single axonal arbor elaborated by a L habenular projection neuron(centre) labeled by focal electroporation. The arbor crosses the ventral midline (dotted line) multiple times. Branches can also reverse direction such that they encircle the IPN in opposite senses. These arbors are shaped like a domed crown and arborize over a considerable DV extent. (Right) Shows an example of a R typical arbour, Which are considerably flatter. (Image provided by Isaac Bianco taken from Bianco et al, 2008)

 From bulk labeling experiments, results suggest that the left habenular nucleus innervates the dorsal IPN and the right habenular nucleus innervates the ventral IPN. In Agetsuma et al, 2010 the habenula-IPN projection pattern in the adult is shown. Instead of bulk labeling the entire habenula nuclei with DiI, the dHbL and dHbm and their efferents are labeled in the double transgenic Tg(narp:GAL4VP16; UAS:DsRed2; brn3a- hsp70:GFP) fish. In the adult the Narp expression selectively labels the dHbL subnucleus, which is much larger on the left-side. Axons from this subnucleus terminate predominantly in the dorsal IPN. The Brn3a:GFP expression labels the dHbM,  the terminals of these nuclei innervate the ventral IPN primarily. In the adult there is also an intermediate zone of the IPN where in the Tg(narp:GAL4VP16; UAS:DsRed2; brn3a- hsp70:GFP) red and green terminals overlap. The application of anterograde tracers to the dIPN showed that efferents from this region project to the dorsal raphé and continue on to terminate in the griseum central (GC)which corresponds to the mammalian periaqueductal gray (PAG), dorsal tegmental nucleus and nucleus incertus. These areas in mammals have been linked to the control of behaviour in fearful or stressful conditions. Manipulation of the dHbL-dIPN pathway with tetanus toxin light chain biased the fish towards a freezing behaviour as opposed to the normal flight response when subjected to cued fear-conditioning. This corroborates that in zebrafish the dHbL-dIPN –GC pathway, as in mammals, is involved in the modification of behavioral responses in an experience-dependent manner (Agetsuma et al, 2010).

 Unlike the dorsal habenular nuclei the ventral habenular nuclei are symmetric, the vHb projects via the fasiculus retroflexus(FR) to the ventral part of the median raphé. The efferents travelling in the FR are arranged with the dHb efferents forming the core of the tract while the vHb efferents form a sheath surrounding them(Amo et al, 2010). 


Habenula Afferent areas

Schematics showing a summary of the main afferent areas to the habenula   from Turner et al., 2016.   ( K : outline of the brain in lateral view,  L : boxes diagram).  (K)  The brain nuclei that project to the habenula are shown as colored areas.  (L)  Boxes represent main nuclei projecting to the habenula, while arrows represent projections. Asymmetric projection from the parapineal (PP) to left habenula (lHB) is shown with a blue arrow. Asymmetric projection from mitral cells of the olfactory bulbs (OB) to right habenula (rHB) is shown with a pink arrow. All other afferent areas that seem to innervate both left and right habenula are represented with black arrows.

Schematics showing a summary of the main afferent areas to the habenula from Turner et al., 2016.

(K: outline of the brain in lateral view, L: boxes diagram). (K) The brain nuclei that project to the habenula are shown as colored areas. (L) Boxes represent main nuclei projecting to the habenula, while arrows represent projections. Asymmetric projection from the parapineal (PP) to left habenula (lHB) is shown with a blue arrow. Asymmetric projection from mitral cells of the olfactory bulbs (OB) to right habenula (rHB) is shown with a pink arrow. All other afferent areas that seem to innervate both left and right habenula are represented with black arrows.


 Development

By observing the expression patern of the vHB specific marker Diamine Oxidase(dao) throughout development it is possible to see that the dorso-ventral orientation of the fish habenula is a result of a morphogenetic process. At 5dpf expression of dao in the primordium is lateral to the dorsal habenular nuclei. This region then migrates ventro-medially to result in the arrangement we observe in the adult zebrafish.

Schematic showing the relative positions of the dosal and ventral habenulae subnuclei at different stages of development .  At 5dpf the vHb subnucleus is lateral to the dorsal habenular nuclei in the habenular primordium. This region then migrates ventro-medially to result in the arrangement we observe in the adult zebrafish. dHb (blue) and vHb(orange)(Schematic adapted from Amo et al, 2010).

Schematic showing the relative positions of the dosal and ventral habenulae subnuclei at different stages of development.

At 5dpf the vHb subnucleus is lateral to the dorsal habenular nuclei in the habenular primordium. This region then migrates ventro-medially to result in the arrangement we observe in the adult zebrafish. dHb (blue) and vHb(orange)(Schematic adapted from Amo et al, 2010).


Ontology
 

is part of: epithalamus, diencephalon, forebrain

has parts: dorsal habenula nucleus, ventral habenula nucleus



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Antibodies that label this brain region


preoptic area

preoptic area

Schematic showing the position of the preoptic area in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.  Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and  http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de   Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Schematic showing the position of the preoptic area in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.
Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Description


Ontology
 

is part of:

has parts:


ZFIN

OLS Tree Diagram


Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and  http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Transgenic Lines that label this brain region

Antibodies that label this brain region


Key Publications

posterior tuberculum

posterior tuberculum

Schematic showing the position of the posterior tuberculum split into dorsal and ventral regions in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.  Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and  http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de   Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Schematic showing the position of the posterior tuberculum split into dorsal and ventral regions in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.
Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Description

“The posterior tuberculum and the preglomerular complex are two dominant structures in the basal diencephalon of zebrafish, which also have no apparent counterparts in amniote tetrapods like birds and mammals. Yet, a large posterior tuberculum is present in jawless vertebrates (lampreys), cartilaginous fishes (sharks and manta rays), lungfish, and amphibians (Nieuwenhuys et al., 1998). In mammals, the basal plate derivatives of prosomere two and three are homologous to the dorsal and ventral posterior tubercular fields of developing zebrafish (Wullimann and Puelles, 1999). In the mature zebrafish brain, the posterior tuberculum comprises the periventricular nucleus of the posterior tuberculum with its characteristic large pear-shaped dopaminergic cells, the paraventricular organ, and the posterior tuberal nucleus. All of them are intercalated between prethalamus and hypothalamus (Rupp et al., 1996; Wullimann et al., 1996). Some of these dopaminergic neurons found in the posterior tuberculum of zebrafish project to the subpallium and have been compared and homologized with an anteriormost diencephalic, not mesencephalic, division of the mammalian ascending mesodiencephalic dopaminergic groups A8–A10 in mammals (Wullimann and Rink, 2001; Rink and Wullimann 2002).” (Mueller, 2012).


Ontology
 

is part of:

has parts:


ZFIN

OLS Tree Diagram


Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and  http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Transgenic Lines that label this brain region

Antibodies that label this brain region


Key Publications

Thomas Mueller
What is the Thalamus in Zebrafish?
Front Neurosci. 2012; 6: 64.

hypothalamus

hypothalamus

Schematic showing the position of the hypothalamus in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.  Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and   http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de     Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Schematic showing the position of the hypothalamus in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.
Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Description

The hypothalamus is the largest and most ventral division of the diencephalon. It's name means "below the thalamus" however this anatomical position applies only to the rostral regions as the more caudal areas are actually below the mesencephalic tegmentum. The hypothalamus arises near the end of the segmentation period (Kimmel et al, 2005) and it gives rise the tuberal nuclei, the inferior hypothalamic lobes and the neurohypophysis of the adult (Meek and Nieuwenhuys, 1998). The hypothalamus is the master regulator of endocrine and autonomic function within the brain (Mathieu et al, 2002).


Subdivisions of the hypothalamus in larval zebrafish. Schematics based on the 3D anatomical segmentation by the ZBB.

Ontology
 

is part of: diencephalon

has parts: dorsal hypothalamic zone, intermediate hypothalamus, medial tuberal portion


Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and  http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de



Transgenic lines that label this brain region

Antibodies that label this brain region


Key Publications

prethalamus

prethalamus

Schematic showing the position of the prethalamus in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.  Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and   http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de     Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Schematic showing the position of the prethalamus in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.
Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Description

synonym: ventral thalamus


Ontology
 

is part of: diencephalon, thalamus

has parts:



Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and  http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Transgenic Lines that label this brain region

Antibodies that label this brain region


Key Publications

Thomas Mueller
What is the Thalamus in Zebrafish?
Front Neurosci. 2012; 6: 64.

thalamus

thalamus

Schematic showing the position of the ? in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.  Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and   http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de     Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Schematic showing the position of the ? in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.
Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Description

synonym: dorsal thalamus


Ontology
 

is part of: diencephalon

has parts:



Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and  http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Transgenic Lines that label this brain region

Antibodies that label this brain region


Key Publications

Thomas Mueller
What is the Thalamus in Zebrafish?
Front Neurosci. 2012; 6: 64.

epithalamus

epithalamus

Schematic showing the position of the epitahlmus in a coronal section through the zebrafish brain.  Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and   http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de     Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Schematic showing the position of the epitahlmus in a coronal section through the zebrafish brain.
Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Description

The epithalamus forms the roof of the diencephalon and consists of the pineal organ, parapineal organ and the habenulae.


Ontology
 

is part of:

has parts:


ZFIN

OLS Tree Diagram


Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and  http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Transgenic Lines that label this brain region

Antibodies that label this brain region


Key Publications

Thomas Mueller
What is the Thalamus in Zebrafish?
Front Neurosci. 2012; 6: 64.

olfactory bulb

olfactory bulb

Schematic showing the position of the olfactory bulbs in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain. Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and   http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de     Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Schematic showing the position of the olfactory bulbs in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain. Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Description

In the adult, the olfactory bulbs are paired protrusions in the anteriormost region of the telencephalon. They recieve primary sensory input from the olfactory epithelium directly via the olfactory nerve (Cranial nerve I). Cytoarchitecturally the bulb is arranged into four concentric layers.


Lateral view of a 5dpf zebrafish brain labelled with SV2 and tubulin antibodies showing olfactory nerve(blue) and glomeruli (pink).

Lateral view of a 5dpf zebrafish brain labelled with SV2 and tubulin antibodies showing olfactory nerve(blue) and glomeruli (pink).

 
Frontal view of 4dpf zebrafish labelled with anti-tubulin showing the olfactory nerve emanating from the olfactory epithelium and entering the bulb where individual olfactory sensory neurons contact individual olfactory glomeruli.

Frontal view of 4dpf zebrafish labelled with anti-tubulin showing the olfactory nerve emanating from the olfactory epithelium and entering the bulb where individual olfactory sensory neurons contact individual olfactory glomeruli.


Neuroanatomy

In the olfactory bulb there are three main cell types: mitral cells, ruffed cells and granule cells.  In addition to these there is also a population of catchecholaminergic cells that are often referred to as either juxtaglomerular or periglomerular cells (Byrd and Brunjes, 1995; Fuller et al., 2005 and 2006)).  

In the mature olfactory bulb, the different cell types that form the olfactory bulb are organised into four concentric layers (from external to internal layers).

1) The Primary Olfactory Fiber Layer (OFL)

This is the outermost layer of the olfactory bulb and contains axon terminals of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs).  Each of these OSNs expresses a single olfactory receptor (OR) on its surface in the olfactory epithelium.  An enormous array of odorants can be detected by the large repertoire of different ORs expressed by OSNs (Sato et al., 2007).  The axons of the OSNs come together and fasciculate to form the olfactory nerve (Cranial Nerve I) that projects into the olfactory bulb.  Once inside the bulb the olfactory nerve axons defasciculate and spread over the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb to form the outer layer of primary olfactory afferents.

 2) The Glomerular Layer (GL)

Primary olfactory afferents branch conspicuously and synapse onto the dendrites of the mitral cells to form a specialised spherical structure named an olfactory glomerulus. The layer containing all these olfactory glomeruli is known as the glomerular layer.

 3) The Mitral or External Cellular Layer (MCL)

The Mitral or External Cellular layer is formed mainly by mitral cells, although ruffed cells can also be found in this layer (Fuller et al., 2005 and 2006).  Both cell types are projection neurons and use glutamate as a neurotransmitter.  In fish, individual mitral cells project several dendrites onto multiple glomeruli, whereas in mammals, single mitral cells project a primary dendrite onto a single glomerulus. Thus, a single fish mitral cell receives sensory information from several different odorant receptors (Yoshihara et al, 2001). 

The apical dendrites of the mitral cells ramify and establish synaptic contact with axons of olfactory receptors to form the olfactory glomeruli. Their axons project via the lateral and medial olfactory tracts to bilaterally symmetric fields within the telencephalic lobes. These telencephalic regions are interconnected by mitral cell axonal processes that project through the anterior commissure. The fasciculated axons of the mitral cells extend posteriorly and dorsally to the habenula via the stria medularis where they cross to the contralateral side via the habenula commisure (Miyasaka, 2009). Some of these axons asymmetrically innervate the medial portion of the central neuropil domain of the right habenula.  These mitral cells are labelled in the transgenic line Tg(lhx2A:GapYFP) (Miyasaka et al, 2009).

 Ruffed cells are less numerous than mitral cells.  Ruffed cells have short collaterals in the proximal region of their axon, which gives these cells their characteristic appearance (Fuller et al., 2005).

4) The Granule or Internal Cellular layer (GCL)

The Granule cell layer or Internal Cellular layer is mainly composed of granule cells, which act as interneurons in the olfactory bulb circuitry.  These cells have apical dendrites that contact mitral and ruffed cells, while their basal dendrites contact axons originating from extrabulbar regions.  They express the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). 

A subpopulation of granule cells produce catecholamines and are tyrosine hydroxylase positive.  These cells are referred to as juxtaglomerular, periglomerular or perinest cells (Byrd and Brunjes, 1995; Fuller et al., 2005 and 2006).

The adult zebrafish OB contains another subset of neuroendocrine cells that express Gonadotrophin releasing hormone(GnRH). These cells are known as terminal nerve cells.  These neurons are born near to the olfactory epithelium and then migrate along the axons of the olfactory sensory neurons to populate the bulb (Whitlock et al., 2003; Palevitch et al., 2007).

Schematic of olfactory bulb cytoarchitecture   abbreviations: GC granule cell; GL glomerular layer; ICL inner cellular layer; MC mitral cell;MCL mitral cell layer; NI cranial nerve I/olfactory nerve; ONL outer layer of primary olfactory afferents; OSN olfactory sensory neuron; PC periglomerular cell.

Schematic of olfactory bulb cytoarchitecture

abbreviations: GC granule cell; GL glomerular layer; ICL inner cellular layer; MC mitral cell;MCL mitral cell layer; NI cranial nerve I/olfactory nerve; ONL outer layer of primary olfactory afferents; OSN olfactory sensory neuron; PC periglomerular cell.

 


Development

The olfactory bulbs along with the rest of the telencephalic lobes originate from the anterior neural plate.

At 1dpf and 2dpf, the prospective olfactory bulb is located in a dorsoposterior region of the telencephalon, adjacent to the diencephalon. From 2dpf to 5dpf, an anterior morphogenetic movement brings the olfactory bulb rostrally to its characteristic position as the anteriormost structure of the brain and away from the diencephalon.

By 2dpf all major neuronal types are present and have elaborated processes so that a number of glomeruli can also be seen.

Cartoon showing the position of the olfactory bulb at three different stages of the zebrafish development (2dpf, 3dpf and 5dpf). The olfactory bulb is located in a dorso-posterior position in the telencephalon at 2dpf, but later in development (5dpf) acquires its characteristic anterior position.

Cartoon showing the position of the olfactory bulb at three different stages of the zebrafish development (2dpf, 3dpf and 5dpf). The olfactory bulb is located in a dorso-posterior position in the telencephalon at 2dpf, but later in development (5dpf) acquires its characteristic anterior position.


Ontology
 

is part of: telencephalon

has parts: external cellular layer, glomerular layer, internal cellular layer, primary olfactory fiber layer



Transgenic Lines that label this brain region

Antibodies that label this brain region


Key Publications

pretectum

pretectum

Schematic showing the position of the pretectum in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.  Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and   http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de     Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Schematic showing the position of the pretectum in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.
Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Description

The pretectal region forms the dorsal most part of the diencephalon. The main sensory input to the pretectum is visual with axons from a subset of retinal ganglion cells branch off and arborise in arborisation fields in the pretectum on their way to innervate the optic tectum (Robles et al., 2014).


Ontology
 

is part of: diencephalon

has parts: superficial pretectum, central pretectum, periventricular pretectal nucleus.



Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and  http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Transgenic Lines that label this brain region

Antibodies that label this brain region


Key Publications

Estuardo Robles, Eva Laurell, and Herwig Baier (2014)
The Retinal Projectome Reveals Brain- Area-Specific Visual Representations Generated by Ganglion Cell Diversity.
Current Biology 24, 2085–2096.

Burrill, J.D., and Easter, S.S., Jr. (1994).
Development of the retinofugal projections in the embryonic and larval zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio).
J. Comp. Neurol. 346, 583–600.

pallium/ dorsal telencephalon

pallium/ dorsal telencephalon

Schematic showing the position of the pallium in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.  Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and   http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de     Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Schematic showing the position of the pallium in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.
Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Description

The Pallium is a dorsal division of the Telencephalon (also called the dorsal telencephalon). The pallium is generally subdivided in a number of areas, named by their topographical position within the telencephalon (Dm, Dd, Dl, Dc and Dp) (see Wullimann et al., 1996). Although projection neurons of the olfactory bulb are pallial derivatives, the olfactory bulb is considered as a separate structure and it is described in its own section (see olfactory bulb).


Ontology
 

is part of: telencephalon

has parts: dorsal zone (Dd), central zone (Dc), medial zone (Dm), caudal/posterior zone (Dp), lateral zone (Dl).



Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and  http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Transgenic Lines that label this brain region


Antibodies that label this brain region

Key Publications


Wullimann, M.F., Rupp, B., Reichert, H., and eds. (1996)
Neuroanatomy of the Zebrafish Brain. A Topological Atlas.
Basel, Switzerland: Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser Verlag. :160 p.

Mueller, T., Dong, Z., Berberoglu, M.A., and Guo, S. (2011)
The dorsal pallium in Zebrafish, Danio rerio (Cyprinidae, Teleostei).
Brain research. 1381:95-105.

Ganz, J., Kroehne, V., Freudenreich, D., Machate, A., Geffarth, M., Braasch, I., Kaslin, J., Brand, M. (2014) Subdivisions of the adult zebrafish pallium based on molecular marker analysis.
F1000Research. 3:308.

eminentia thalami/ thalamic eminence

eminentia thalami/ thalamic eminence

Schematic showing the position of the thalamic eminence in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.  Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and   http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de     Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Schematic showing the position of the thalamic eminence in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.
Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Description

The thalamic eminence is part of the diencephalon and lies ventral to the ventral thalamus and dorsal to the preoptic area. This region gives rise to the ventral entopeduncular nucleus that extends into the telencephalon and straddles the diencephalic/telencephalic border. The ventral entopeduncular nucleus is a major afferent nucleus to the habenulae. 


Ontology
 

is part of: forebrain

has parts:


ZFIN

OLS Tree Diagram


Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and  http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Transgenic Lines that label this brain region

Antibodies that label this brain region


Key Publications

Turner KJ., et al.
Afferent Connectivity of the Zebrafish Habenulae.
Front Neural Circuits. 2016 Apr 26;10:30. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2016.00030

Wullimann, M.F. & Mueller, T., 2004a. 
Identification and morphogenesis of the eminentia thalami in the zebrafish. 
Journal of Comparative Neurology, 471(1), pp.37–48.

Mueller, T., 2012. 
What is the thalamus in zebrafish?
Frontiers in Neuroscience,6. pp.1–14.

Mueller T, Guo S.
The distribution of GAD67-mRNA in the adult zebrafish (teleost) forebrain reveals a prosomeric pattern and suggests previously unidentified homologies to tetrapods. 
The Journal of comparative neurology. 2009;516(6):553-568. doi:10.1002/cne.22122.

 

diencephalon

diencephalon

diencephalon-46.png

Description

The posterior neuromere of the forebrain that gives rise to the optic cups, epithalamus, thalamus,  ventral thalamus and hypothalmus.

“The diencephalon proper has five major divisions which, in the adult brain, appear in a dorsoventral arrangement. They are the epithalamus, dorsal thalamus, ventral thalamus, posterior tuberculum and hypothalamus. The preoptic area , although often considered part of the hypothalamus, constitutes an intermediate region between telencephalon and diencephalon.” (Wulliman et al., 1996).


Ontology
 

is part of: forebrain

has parts: caudal tuberculum, diencephalic white matter, epithalamus, hypophysis, hypothalamus, optic stalk, preoptic area, pretectum, synencephalon, thalamus, third ventricle



diencephalon vibez schema-46.png

Transgenic Lines that label this brain region

Antibodies that label this brain region


Key Publications

Wullimann, M.F., Rupp, B., Reichert, H., and eds. (1996)
Neuroanatomy of the Zebrafish Brain. A Topological Atlas.
Basel, Switzerland: Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser Verlag. :160 p.

Mueller, T., 2012. 
What is the thalamus in zebrafish?
Frontiers in Neuroscience,6. pp.1–14.

telencephalon

telencephalon

Description
 

Formed from the rostral-most neuromere, the telencephalon in zebrafish consists of the olfactory bulbs, dorsal telencephalon or pallium and the ventral telencephalon or subpallium.   The teleost telencephalon is formed by two solid telencephalic lobes separated by a T-shaped ventricle. This "everted" morphology is in contrast with most other vertebrates where the telencephalon forms by a process of evagination resulting in hollow telencephalic lobes surrounding a central ventricle.    


Ontology
 

is part of: forebrain

has parts: dorsal telencephalon, olfactory bulb, telencephalic ventricle, telencephalic white matter, ventral telencephalon. 



telencephalon vibez schema-47.png

Transgenic Lines that label this brain region

Antibodies that label this brain region


Key Publications

Folgueira M, Bayley P, Navratilova P, Becker TS, Wilson SW, Clarke JD.
Morphogenesis underlying the development of the everted teleost telencephalon
Neural Development. 2012;7:32. doi:10.1186/1749-8104-7-32.

subpallium/ ventral telencephalon

subpallium/ ventral telencephalon

Schematic showing the position of the subpallium in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.  Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and   http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de     Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Schematic showing the position of the subpallium in sagittal, horizontal and coronal sections through the zebrafish brain.

Based on the anatomical segmentation of 3 day old zebrafish larval brain by Thomas Müller, Olaf Ronneberger, Wolfgang Driever and colleagues. For details see Ronneberger et al., Nat. Meth. 2012 and http://vibez.informatik.uni-freiburg.de

Abbreviations: Ce, cerebellar plate; D, dorsal telencephalon/pallium; E, epiphysis; EmT, eminentia thalami; Hb, habenula; Hyp, hypothalamus; MO, medulla oblongata; OB, olfactory bulb; OT, optic tectum; PG, preglomerular complex; PO, preoptic area;PrT, pretectum; PTd, posterior tuberculum dorsal part; PTh, prethalamus; PTv posterior tuberculum ventral part; Teg, tegmentum; Th, thalamus; TS, torus semicircularis; V, ventral telencephalon/subpallium; Va, valvula cerebelli.

Description

The ventral telencephalon or subpallium is a ventral division of the Telencephalic Lobes. The subpallium is generally subdivided in a number of areas named by their topographical position in the telencephalon (Vd, Vv, Vc, Vl, Vs and Vp).


Ontology
 

is part of: forebrain, telencephalon

has parts:


ZFIN

OLS Tree Diagram


Antibodies that label this brain region

Antibodies that label this brain region


Key Publications

Ganz, J., Kaslin, J., Freudenreich, D., Machate, A., Geffarth, M., and Brand, M. (2012)
Subdivisions of the adult zebrafish subpallium by molecular marker analysis.
The Journal of comparative neurology. 520(3):633-55.